beginnings of Twardogóra reach the times
when the first Piasts governed on the Polish
lands. Then it was a fair settlement
connected with the commercial route from
Wrocław to Poznań. It was inhabited by
descendants Slav Ślęża tribe and, since the
XIIth century also newcomers from other
countries, especially Germans. A legend
states that the contemporary name of the
town was created during invasion of Tatars
on Silesia in 1241. The settlement
inhabitants produced hard resistance against
them and this explains the name (Twardogóra
+ Hard Mountain). This covers also the
terrain topography (Hard Mountain).
The municipal rights were granted to
Twardogóra by the Piask prince Henryk III
Głogowski (of Głogów) on 1 August 1293.
Later on, the small town got the medieval
character. From the beginning of the XIVth
century, Twardogóra was connected with the
Oleśnica principality under Piast government
but subordinated to Czech kings.
Town inhabitants having bad memories of the
Hus Wars built a fortified structure at the
end of the XVth century. A hundred years
later, a castle was built in the structure.
In 1526, Twardogóra complete with the
Oleśnica principality was merged into the
Habsburg's state. Jan Podbiebrad governing
then in the principality introduced
Lutheranisms in 1538. It is supposed that,
at that time, the (lower) church was in the
town already. The church was subject to
thorough repair in 1587.
Since 1647, Wirtemberg dynasty
representatives started to govern the
Oleśnica Principality. In the period of the
dynasty governments, Twardogóra survived its
full bloom. Her share in that had, first of
all, the wife of the Sylvius Frederic -
Eleonore Caroline (1676 - 1712). She
expanded the castle which became a baroque
palace. She cared also for the inhabitants'
health, development of craft, commerce and
education, and developed charity activities.
Within 1729 1738, the (lower) church was
reconstructed and received the present shape.
Prussia governments began on Silesia from
1740. In 1943, Twardogóra was bought by
count Henry L. von Reichenbach and, a year
later, he included it to the new established
state in Goszcz . In 1786, the town was
inhabited by 1175 persons of the highest
number was involved in the weaving craft
prospering well at that time.
On the beginning of the XIXth century, two
new cemeteries were established outside the
outskirts of the town, separately for
Protestants and Catholics and the old
cemeteries near the church were liquidated.
Twardogóra Catholics built a church at the
new market in 1869. In 1873, a fire
destroyed the Evangelic church which was
reconstructed three years later in the
Since the middle of the XIXth century,
Twardogóra started to take the industrial
character. Henry Piirschel established a
mechanical weaving plant and Henry
Lichtenberg launched industrial production
The demographic development of the town in
the XIXth century (in 1885 - 2202
inhabitants and, after the merge with Stara
Twardogóra in 1910 - 3351 inhabitants)
resulted in expansion of the town
infrastructure. Before the World War I, in
Twardogóra , a credit bank and a
printing-house were established in 1901 and
1907, respectively, a court with a prison (presently
the town hall), cemetery chapel and a town
hall (at the Eastern market wall) were built
in were built in 1902 in 1912, respectively
as well as a new water pipeline was
installed in 1901 and the town was
In 1944, the town was inhabited by 4500
persons who were employed, first of all, in
craft, commerce and service business. The
town possessed, among other things: an
agricultural and general secondary school,
two cinemas as well as a hospital, children
house and well developed catering business.
German reign finished in Twardogóra on 23
January 1945. At that time , the Polish
administration period began.